Wednesday, September 2, 2020
Talk about the MBS advertise in the US - Essay Example Fisher Center for the Economics and Real Estate Journal (Van Order, 2000). The paper additionally shows a little history about the sold based protections advertise in the US. It additionally shows the subtypes of the home loan sponsored security. For example, it shows contracts that have insurance particularly those that are made sure about utilizing bond. It additionally shows stripped home loans that are gained utilizing the connections. The paper additionally that there is likewise the optional home loan advertise where a system of banks does sell, and the financial specialists purchase the current MBS. The issue of market size and liquidity is. The paper likewise shows how the Mortgage-sponsored security is the place the weighted normal coupon (WAC) and the weighted normal development are in the valuation of a go through MBS (Van Order, 2000). The paper additionally discusses the issue of credit chance where the credit danger of the home loan supported protections will rely upon the vulnerability of the borrowers in respecting their credit commitments at the necessary time. It likewise shows that the MBSÃ¢â¬â¢ FICO score is generally high (Van Order, 2000). The Mortgage supported protections (MBS) involves an obligation duty that go about as a delegate of the cases to the incomes from different credit contracts united. It generally saw in the land properties. Home loan advances are from contract organizations, banks, and different originators, and they are into pools by the private substance, administrative or semi legislative element. The substance will at that point issue protections that speak to claims on the head and installments of premium made by financial specialists on the credits in the pool. The procedure is as securitization (Levin and Davidson, 2008). Most Mortgaged Backed Securities begin from government-based organizations particularly those that manages contracts. Some of such establishments are NMA and FAM. It additionally includes other enterprise in the
Posted by Micah Conklin at 11:52 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Demetri Martin's Humorous Quotes on Life Demetri Martin has a casual disposition. You simply need to hear him out for a couple of moments before you tumble off your seat, snickering. Demetri is a talented craftsman, however how is he best depicted? A comic artist? A comic on-screen character? An author? Presently, that is a heap of talent.Ã¢ Food On the off chance that you have a pear-formed body, you ought not wear pear-hued garments or act succulent. My companion had a burrito. The following day he stated, That burrito didn't concur with me. I resembled, Was the contradiction about whether or not youd have loose bowels? Let me think about who won. I attempted to prevail upon it, I demanded, you know. I resembled, I wanna head outside, I like these jeans, however the burrito had his direction. I like natural product crates since it enables you to mail somebody a bit of organic product without seeming crazy. Like, in the event that somebody simply sent you an apple youd resemble Huh? What the heck is this? be that as it may, if its in an organic product bin youre like, This is pleasant! I was makingÃ¢ pancakesÃ¢ the other day and a fly flew into the kitchen. What's more, that is the point at which I understood that a spatula is a great deal like a flyswatter. Also, a squashed fly is a great deal like a blueberry. What's more, a flat mate is a great deal like a fly eater. I feel inept when I compose the word banana. ItsÃ¢ like, how manyÃ¢ nasÃ¢ are on this thing? Cause Im like Bana ... continue onward. BanananaÃ¢ ... damn. Word Play I saw that there are no B batteries. I think that is to stay away from turmoil, cause if there were you wouldnt know whether somebody was stammering. Truly, hi Id like some B-batteries. What kind? B-batteries. What kind? B-batteries! furthermore, D-batteries that is hard for outsiders. Truly, I might want de batteries. I think its intriguing that cologne rhymes with alone. Saying Im sorry is equivalent to stating I am sorry. Aside from at a memorial service. A few jokes are short and exquisite, similar to a numerical evidence or a dwarf in a ball outfit. I like when beneficial things transpire, yet I hold up about fourteen days to advise anybody since I like to utilize the word fortnight. I like computer games, however theyre extremely rough. Id like to play aÃ¢ video gameÃ¢ where you help the individuals who were shot in the various games. Itd be called Really Busy Hospital. I went intoÃ¢ a clothesÃ¢ store and a woman came up to me and stated, on the off chance that you need anything, Im Jill. Ive never met anybody with a contingent character previously. The computerized camera is an extraordinary innovation since it permits us to think back. In a flash. I love ladies, however I feel like you cannot confide in some of them. Some of them are liars, you know? Like I was in the recreation center and I met this young lady, she was adorable and she had a canine. What's more, I went up to her; we began talking. She revealed to me her canines name. At that point I stated, Does he chomp? She stated, No. What's more, I stated, Oh yes? At that point how can he eat? Liar. A speedy method to begin a discussion is to state something like Whats your preferred shading? A brisk method to end a discussion is to state something like Whats your preferred shading ...Ã person? I was in the city. This person waved to me, and he came up to me and stated, Im sorry, I thought you were another person. Also, I stated, I am. Kind of is such an innocuous comment ... kind of. Its only a filler. Kind of ... it doesnt truly mean anything. In any case, after specific things, kind of means the world. Like ... after I love you ... or on the other hand Youre going to live .. or on the other hand Its a kid! I wonder what the word for spots resembles in Braille. Birthday celebrations I wrapped my Christmas presents early this year, yet I utilized an inappropriate paper. Obviously, the paper I utilized said Happy BirthdayÃ¢ on it. I didnt need to squander it so I just composed Jesus on it. It was myÃ¢ friends birthdayÃ¢ and I was frantic at him, so I sent him a card. It saidÃ¢ happy birthday, yet I put cites around the word Happy... mocking birthday, douche. Everything Else I like gatherings, yet I dont like pinatas in light of the fact that the pinata advances savagery against ostentatious creatures. Hello, theres a jackass with some style. Lets beat its down. What Im attempting to state is, dont commit a similar Halloween ensemble error that I did. Worker of the month is a genuine case of how someone can be both a champ and a washout simultaneously. I feel that when you get wearing the morning, now and then youre truly settling on a choice about your conduct for the afternoon. Like on the off chance that you put on flip-flops, youre saying: Hope I dont get pursued today. Be ideal to individuals in tennis shoes. My pipes is totally messed up. Since it turns out, I don't claim a waste disposal. Many individuals dont like guard stickers. I dont mind guard stickers. To me, a guard sticker is an alternate route. Its like a little sign that says Hey, lets never hang out. An alcoholic driver is exceptionally hazardous. So is a flushed busybody if hes convincing. Fella, make a left. Those are trees. Trust me. On the off chance that I need to climb in a structure, I pick the lift over the elevator. Since one time I was riding the elevator and I stumbled. I tumbled down the steps for 90 minutes. I used to play sports. At that point I understood you can purchase trophies. Presently Im great at everything.
Posted by Micah Conklin at 5:27 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
A Problem Exists - Essay Example A Problem Exists English, as a worldwide language, is estimated to be one of the most regularly communicated in dialects around the world. Truly, the language is viewed as a West Germanic language for the most part enunciated in introductory crude England (Mydans, 2007). Over the ongoing years, the language has been adjusted by numerous countries as their first language, particularly those situated in the western side of the equator of the globe. The situation is by all accounts totally different in certain areas be that as it may; particularly in the Asian locale. It is in this setting with the appearance of globalization and more prominent need of introduction on the planet society, everyday citizens are persuaded to relocate from their nations of origin and situate in western nations. This thusly has brought about the developing acknowledgment of the language and correspondingly to the enlarging need to pick up capability in communicating in English. In any case, the expansion in the relocation rate from Asian nations and the issue of segregation from the English people group in the current days frequently beguile the outside students aiming to gain proficiency with the language to see a bogus engraving of discriminationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Jimenez, 2011). Proposition STATEMENT After recognizing the three prime issues related with the issue of apparent separation, for example ... Conversation The expanding pattern of embracing English as the main language by both the general public and business are not just moving individuals to seek after their training in English language but on the other hand are rousing them to become familiar with the language as it would assist them with getting a superior activity sooner rather than later in the worldwide domain. The significance of learning English has been seen as expanding in nations that are creating at a quick pace and in this manner endeavoring to reinforce their situating inside the worldwide plenty. Nations like China, India and other Asian countries situated in the South Asian district are supplanting their national language with English as the mode of giving training and creating relational abilities of the workforce to have the option to contend comprehensively. Correspondingly, it has been seen that individuals who move to different nations regularly feel a feeling of apparent discriminationÃ¢â¬â¢, on occ asion will in general influence their scholarly and public activity to a considerable degree (Jeffrey, n.d.). Correspondingly, issues as far as social and social dissimilarity, complexities in imparting and imbalance between networks are distinguished. 1. Answer for Social and Cultural Problem It has frequently been seen that individuals who relocate to western regions from the Asian locale are essentially people who think about English as a Second Language (ESL) and are regularly explained as the fundamental remote students of the language. These understudies regularly think that its hard to pose inquiries to their instructors or work as a team with their individual colleagues when they get conceded in schools or college outside their country inferable from their apparent social and social contrasts. Underlining this worry, if enormous non-government
Posted by Micah Conklin at 3:09 PM
Friday, June 5, 2020
Bioinformatics: Gap Penalty, Genomic Alignment, Pairwise Sequence (Math Problem Sample) Content: SurnameCourseTutorInstitutionDateQUESTION 1 (PAIRWISE ALIGNMENT) 1 Types of pairwise sequence alignments are; * Global alignment this creates an end to end alignment of the sequence to be aligned. * Genomic alignment this emphasizes on DNA alignment while accounting for characteristics present in the genomic data. * Local alignment this one finds one or more alignments describing the most similar regions within the sequence to be aligned. 2 Linear gap penalty, is a gap penalty in which each inserted/deleted symbol in the gap contributes a constant negative score to the alignment, while affine gap penalty penalizes using insertion and deletion using a linear function in which one term is length independent. So, affine gap penalty combines both constant and linear gap penalties, that is why is the most preferable. 3 Gap penalty 2, Match +3 and Mismatch 1.Step 1; we draw the (n+1) X (m+1) grid and populate the values CGGACAGT, CGAC. We will put a gap in the first box of the matrix, as follows:T G A C A G G C C G A C Step 2; We fill in the table with the first value being a gap (0). Then we add the numbers starting from zero to the gap value. E.g. 0 +(-2)= - 2, -2+(-2)=-4 and so on.T -16 G -14 A -12 C -10 A -8 G -6 G -4 C -2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 C G A C Step 3: We fill in the rest of the table by adding; the box beside (+gap), the box at the bottom(+gap) and the diagonal box with the match and mismatch parameters. The we identify which one brings the higher score and indicate by an arrow which one brought the higher score, thats what we indicate as follows;T -16 -692151670050017 11112517272000-154305-50800019 13843015875000-167640-63500021 14478016192500-15303512700023 G -14 -647701746250015 9461516002000-163830-50800017 -100330-50800019 16827517589500-90805-50800021 A -12 -749301593850013 193040-69850011493519177000-158115-152400015 10541017716500136525-298450017 -1 047756350019 C -10 -717551555750011 10160017589500-130175-50800013 10922015748000-97790-63500015 167640-234950016129016446500-13398569850017 A -8 -67310149860009 10096516065500-130175-127000011 -117475-50800013 -124460-50800015 G -6 7 8445516192500-17399019050009 1098551892300099695-2984500-1041406350011 14668516637000151765-2730500-126365-25400013 G -4 -60960-3556000-61595158750005 -163830-5715007 -117475-8890009 -12890519050011 C 17589520129500-2 3 -163195-8255001 -166370-1206500-1 -1581153810000-17018019177000-3 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 C G A C Step 4; We want to make a trace back. Here, we need to find the highest value, usually the highest value is always at the last corner of the matrix. Ours is +23 (most suitable value). We trace it back to the starting point 0. So we require the arrows to know from which the value comes from until we get to 0. In our box, we will use a shading of red to show the traceback.T -16 -692151670050017 11112517272000-154305-50800019 13843015875000-167640-63 500021 14478016192500-15303512700023 G -14 -647701746250015 9461516002000-163830-50800017 -100330-50800019 16827517589500-90805-50800021 A -12 -749301593850013 193040-69850011493519177000-158115-152400015 10541017716500136525-298450017 -1047756350019 C -10 -717551555750011 10160017589500-130175-50800013 10922015748000-97790-63500015 167640-234950016129016446500-13398569850017 A -8 -67310149860009 10096516065500-130175-127000011 -117475-50800013 -124460-50800015 G -6 7 8445516192500-17399019050009 1098551892300099695-2984500-1041406350011 14668516637000151765-2730500-126365-25400013 G -4 -60960-3556000-61595158750005 -163830-5715007 -117475-8890009 -12890519050011 C 17589520129500-2 3 -163195-8255001 -166370-1206500-1 -1581153810000-17018019177000-3 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 C G A C orT -16 -692151670050017 11112517272000-154305-50800019 13843015875000-167640-63500021 14478016192500-15303512700023 G -14 -647701746250015 9461516002000-163830-50800017 -100330-50800019 16827517589500-90805-50800 021 A -12 -749301593850013 193040-69850011493519177000-158115-152400015 10541017716500136525-298450017 -1047756350019 C -10 -717551555750011 10160017589500-130175-50800013 10922015748000-97790-63500015 167640-234950016129016446500-13398569850017 A -8 -67310149860009 10096516065500-130175-127000011 -117475-50800013 -124460-50800015 G -6 7 8445516192500-17399019050009 1098551892300099695-2984500-1041406350011 14668516637000151765-2730500-126365-25400013 G -4 -60960-3556000-61595158750005 -163830-5715007 -117475-8890009 -12890519050011 C 17589520129500-2 3 -163195-8255001 -166370-1206500-1 -1581153810000-17018019177000-3 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 C G A C 4 A local alignment on the sequences, we look for the trace back path (places shaded red)...
Posted by Micah Conklin at 2:01 PM
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Lady Jane Grey (1537 - February 12, 1559) was a young woman who was briefly the Queen of England for a total of nine days. She was put on the throne of England after the death of Edward VI by an alliance of her father, Duke of Suffolk, and her father-in-law, Duke of Northumberland, as part of a struggle between factions within the Tudor family over the succession and over religion.Ã She was executed as a threat to the succession of Mary I. Background and Family Lady Jane Grey was born in Leicestershire in 1537, to a family well-connected to the TudorÃ rulers. Her father was Henry Grey, marquess of Dorset, later duke of Suffolk. He was a great-grandson of Elizabeth Woodville, Edward IVs queen consort, through a son of her first marriage to Sir John Grey. Her mother, Lady Frances Brandon, was the daughter of Princess Mary of England, sister of Henry VIII, and her second husband, Charles Brandon.Ã She was thus through her maternal grandmother related to the ruling Tudor family: she was a great-granddaughter of Henry VII and his wife Elizabeth of York, and through Elizabeth, a great great granddaughter ofÃ Elizabeth WoodvilleÃ through her second marriage to Edward IV. Well-educated as was fit for a young lady who was even distantly in line for succession for the throne, Lady Jane Grey became the ward of Thomas Seymour, fourth husband of Henry VIIIs widow, Catherine Parr. After his execution for treason in 1549, Lady Jane Grey returned to her parents home. Family at a Glance Mother: Lady Frances Brandon, daughter of Mary Tudor who was the sister of Henry VIII, and her second husband, Charles BrandonFather: Henry Grey, Duke of SuffolkSiblings: Lady Catherine Grey, Lady Mary Grey Reign of Edward VI John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, in 1549 became head of the council advising and ruling for the young King Edward VI, son of King Henry VIII and his third wife, Jane Seymour. Under his leadership, Englands economy improved, and the replacement of Roman Catholicism with Protestantism progressed. Northumberland realized that Edwards health was fragile and probably failing and that the named successor, Mary, would side with the Roman Catholics and probably would suppress Protestants. He arranged with Suffolk for Suffolks daughter, Lady Jane, to marry Guildford Dudley, son of Northumberland. They were married in May of 1553. Northumberland then convinced Edward to make Jane and any male heirs she might have the successors to Edwards crown. Northumberland gained the agreement of his fellow council members to this change in the succession. This act bypassed Henrys daughters, the princesses Mary and Elizabeth, whom Henry had named his heirs if Edward died without children. The act also ignored the fact that the Duchess of Suffolk, Janes mother, would normally have precedence over Jane since Lady Frances was the daughter of Henrys sister Mary and Jane the granddaughter. Brief Reign After Edward died on July 6, 1553, Northumberland had Lady Jane Grey declared Queen, to Janes surprise and dismay. But support for Lady Jane Grey as Queen quickly disappeared as Mary gathered her forces to claim the throne. Threat to the Reign of Mary I On July 19, Mary was declared Queen of England, and Jane and her father were imprisoned. Northumberland was executed; Suffolk was pardoned; Jane, Dudley, and others were sentenced to be executed for high treason. Mary hesitated with the executions, however, until Suffolk participated in Thomas Wyatts rebellion when Mary realized that Lady Jane Grey, alive, would be too tempting a focus for further rebellions. Lady Jane Grey and her young husband Guildford Dudley were executed on February 12, 1554. Lady Jane Grey has been represented in art and illustrationsÃ as her tragic story has been told and retold.
Posted by Micah Conklin at 4:00 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Critically examine how Black feminism emerged and assess its impact on contemporary feminist theory. Answer with reference to intersectionality and Ã¢â¬Ëdifference . feminism means the equality between men and women in social, political and social standing. There are many different types of feminism that women have adopted that they best feel aligns with their perspectives of the world. This essay will mainly be focusing black feminism that was developed in the 1960s. The essay will examine why the black feminism movement and theories emerged and how it impacts on the contemporary feminist movement. Since the very beginning the mainstream feminist movement which is led by middle class white women has been criticised for erasing womenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The black liberating movement was dominated by and fought for the liberation of black men. Black women faced constant and consistent misogyny within the black liberation movement. The black liberation movement equated with manhood and the freedom of black people with the redemption of hyper black masculinity. The movement tackled one type of oppression which was racial segregation whilst simultaneously perpetrating violent misogyny. Both of the movements failed to see the different intersections of the black womanÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The black feminist movement emerging helped black women understand their own womanhood. According the Black Feminist writer Barbara Smith , the Black Feminist movement that emerged in in 1960s focused on reproductive issues, equality in the healthcare system, harassment, amongst many others. The black feminist movement actively fought against the structural and institutional racism that was deeply overlooked by the mainstream feminists. Black feminism for black women argues for their intersectionality of sexism, racism and class oppression and it actively fought against the structural and institutional racism faced by black women. It was during the emergence of the black feminist movement that black feminist write and professor KimberlÃ © Crenshaw coined the popular term Ã¢â¬Ë intersectional feminismÃ¢â¬â¢. Intersectional feminism focused on the different intersections( sexuality,Show MoreRelatedConstructing My Cultural Identity6012 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesI attended colonial school, to making the transition to high school in the Canadian context. I examine the elements that have influenced my cultural/racial identity as a person of African ancestry living in the diaspora. I ask questions such as how has colonial education influenced my cultural identity and how I see myself? I address the complexity of my racial and gender identity drawing on a Black feminist theoretical framework and anticolonial thought to inform this work. Cet article prÃ ©senteRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 PagesOrganizational Theory takes you on a joyful ride through the developments of one of the great enigmas of our time Ã¢â¬â How should we understand the organization? Jan Ole SimilÃ ¤, Assistant Professor, Nord-TrÃ ¸ndelag University College, Norway I really enjoyed this new text and I am sure my students will enjoy it, too. It combines rigorous theoretical argument with application and consideration of how managment practice is formed and shaped by ideas and concepts. The authors have brought their wealth of experience
Posted by Micah Conklin at 6:48 PM
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
AN ODE To Autumn Summary KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s speaker opens his first stanza by addressing Autumn, describing its abundance and its intimacy with the sun, with whom Autumn ripens fruits and causes the late flowers to bloom. In the second stanza, the speaker describes the figure of Autumn as a female goddess, often seen sitting on the granary floor, her hair Ã¢â¬Å"soft-liftedÃ¢â¬ by the wind, and often seen sleeping in the fields or watching a cider-press squeezing the juice from apples. In the third stanza, the speaker tells Autumn not to wonder where the songs of spring have gone, but instead to listen to her own music. At twilight, the Ã¢â¬Å"small gnatsÃ¢â¬ hum among the the river sallows, or willow trees, lifted and dropped by the wind, and Ã¢â¬Å"full-grown lambsÃ¢â¬ bleat from the hills, crickets sing, robins whistle from the garden, and swallows, gathering for their coming migration, sing from the skies. We will write a custom essay sample on Summary of the Poem an Ode to Autom or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page For s form and descriptive surface, Ã¢â¬Å"To AutumnÃ¢â¬ is one of the simplest of KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s odes. There is nothing confusing or complex in KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s paean to the season of autumn, with its fruitfulness, its flowers, and the song of its swallow gathering for migration. The extraordinary achievement of this poem lies in its ability to suggest, explore, and develop a rich abundance of themes without ever ruffling its calm, gentle, and lovely description of autumn. Where Ã¢â¬Å"Ode on MelancholyÃ¢â¬ presents itself as a strenuous heroic quest, Ã¢â¬Å"To AutumnÃ¢â¬ is concerned with the much quieter activity of daily observation and appreciation. In this quietude, the gathered themes of the preceding odes find their fullest and most beautiful expression. Ã¢â¬Å"To AutumnÃ¢â¬ takes up where the other odes leave off. Like the others, it shows KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s speaker paying honor to a particular god desssin this case, the deified season of Autumn. The selection of this season implicitly takes up the other odesÃ¢â¬â¢ themes of temporality, mortality, and change: Autumn in KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s ode is a time of warmth and plenty, but it is perched on the brink of winterÃ¢â¬â¢s desolation, as the bees enjoy Ã¢â¬Å"later flowers,Ã¢â¬ the harvest is gathered from the fields, the lambs of spring are now Ã¢â¬Å"full grown,Ã¢â¬ and, in the final line of the poem, the swallows gather for their winter migration. The understated sense of inevitable loss in that final line makes it one of the most moving moments in all of poetry; it can be read as a simple, uncomplaining summation of the entire human condition. Despite the coming chill of winter, the late warmth of autumn provides KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s speaker with ample beauty to celebrate: the cottage and its surroundings in the first stanza, the agrarian haunts of the goddess in the second, and the locales of natural creatures in the third. KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s speaker is able to experience these beauties in a sincere and meaningful way because of the lessons he has learned in the previous odes: He is no longer indolent, no longer committed to the isolated imagination (as in Ã¢â¬Å"PsycheÃ¢â¬ ), no longer attempting to escape the pain of the world through ecstatic rapture (as in Ã¢â¬Å"NightingaleÃ¢â¬ ), no longer frustrated by the attempt to eternalize mortal beauty or subject eternal beauty to time (as in Ã¢â¬Å"UrnÃ¢â¬ ), and no longer able to frame the connection of pleasure and the sorrow of loss only as an imaginary heroic quest (as in Ã¢â¬Å"MelancholyÃ¢â¬ ). In Ã¢â¬Å"To Autumn,Ã¢â¬ the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of beauty refers back to earlier odes (the swallows recall the nightingale; the fruit recalls joyÃ¢â¬â¢s grape; the goddess drowsing among the poppies recalls Psyche and Cupid lying in the grass), but it also recalls a wealth of earlier poems. Most importantly, the image of Autumn winnowing and harvesting (in a sequence of odes often explicitly about creativity recalls an earlier Keats poem in which the activity of harvesting is an explicit metaphor for artistic creation. In his sonnet Ã¢â¬Å"When I have fears that I may cease to be,Ã¢â¬ Keats makes this connection directly: When I have fears that I may cease to be Before my pen has gleanÃ¢â¬â¢d my teeming brain, Before high-piled books, in charactry, Hold like rich garners the full ripenÃ¢â¬â¢d grain In this poem, the act of creation is pictured as a kind of self-harvesting; the pen harvests the fields of the brain, and books are filled with the resulting Ã¢â¬Å"grain. Ã¢â¬ In Ã¢â¬Å"To Autumn,Ã¢â¬ the metaphor is developed further; the sense of coming loss that permeates the poem confronts the sorrow underlying he seasonÃ¢â¬â¢s creativity. When AutumnÃ¢â¬â¢s harvest is over, the fields will be bare, the swaths with their Ã¢â¬Å"twined flowersÃ¢â¬ cut down, the cider-press dry, the skies empty. But the connection of this harvesting to the seasonal cycle softens the edge of the tragedy. In time, spring will come again, the fields will grow again, and the birdsong will return. As th e speaker knew in Ã¢â¬Å"Melancholy,Ã¢â¬ abundance and loss, joy and sorrow, song and silence are as intimately connected as the twined flowers in the fields. What makes Ã¢â¬Å"To AutumnÃ¢â¬ beautiful is that it brings an engagement with that connection out of the realm of mythology and fantasy and into the everyday world. The development the speaker so strongly resisted in Ã¢â¬Å"IndolenceÃ¢â¬ is at last complete: He has learned that an acceptance of mortality is not destructive to an appreciation of beauty and has gleaned wisdom by accepting the passage of time. 1. What are some of the recurring motifs that appear throughout the six odes? Given the chronological problems with the usual ordering of the odes (Ã¢â¬Å"Indolence,Ã¢â¬ often placed first in the sequence, was one of the last odes to be written), to what extent do you think the odes should be grouped as a unified sequence? 2. Taken together, do the odes tell a Ã¢â¬Å"story,Ã¢â¬ or do they simply develop a theme? Do you think the speaker is the same in each ode? 3. How does the Ã¢â¬Å"Ode on IndolenceÃ¢â¬ anticipate the themes and images of the other five poems? Given the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s later confrontations with Love, Ambition, and BeautyÃ¢â¬âas well as with such themes as mortality and the creative imaginationÃ¢â¬âdoes the conclusion of the Indolence ode seem ironic? 4. In what ways is Ã¢â¬Å"Ode to PsycheÃ¢â¬ different from the other odes? How do these differences affect the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to describe the creative imagination? Why might the speaker want to use his imagination for PsycheÃ¢â¬â¢s worship? 5. From PsycheÃ¢â¬â¢s bower to the nightingaleÃ¢â¬â¢s glade to the warm luxury of Autumn, the odes contain some of the most beautiful sensory language in English poetry. But many of the odes intentionally limit the senses they inhabit. With particular reference to Ã¢â¬Å"NightingaleÃ¢â¬ (which suppresses sight) and Ã¢â¬Å"Grecian UrnÃ¢â¬ (which suppresses every sense but sight), how do the odes create an abundance of believable sensation even as they limit it? 6. The odes are full of paradoxical and self-contradictory ideasÃ¢â¬âthe attribution of human experience to the frozen figures on the urn, for instance. But the Ã¢â¬Å"Ode on MelancholyÃ¢â¬ builds its entire theme on an apparent paradoxÃ¢â¬âthat pleasure and pain are intimately connected and that sadness rests at the core of joy. How does the language of Ã¢â¬Å"MelancholyÃ¢â¬ strengthen that sense of paradox? What does it mean for trophies to be cloudy, pleasure to be aching, a loverÃ¢â¬â¢s anger to be soothing, and Ã¢â¬Å"wakeful anguishÃ¢â¬ a thing to be desired? 7. On its surface, the ode Ã¢â¬Å"To AutumnÃ¢â¬ seems to be little more than description, an illustration of a season. But underneath its descriptive surface, Ã¢â¬Å"To AutumnÃ¢â¬ is one of the most thematically rich of all the odes. How does Keats manage to embody complex themes in such an apparently simple poem? According to Keats, Autumn is a season of mists; a cloudlike aggregation of minute globules of water suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earths surface, reducing visibility to a lesser degree than fog; and mellow; soft, sweet, and full-flavored from ripeness, as fruit: well-matured, as wines: soft and rich, as sound, tones, color, or light: made gentle and compassionate by age or maturity; softened: friable or loamy, as soil: mildly and pleasantly intoxicated or high: pleasantly agreeable; free from tension, discord, etc. : affably relaxed; easygoing; genial; fruitfulness and a close friend of the maturing sun. It conspires; to agree together, esp. secretly, to do something wrong, evil, or illegal: to act or work together toward the same result or goal: to plot; with him in a unique manner to load and bless with fruits the vines that round the thatch-eaves run; overhanging thatched roofs; To bend with apples the mossÃ¢â¬â¢d cottage trees and fill all fruit with ripeness to the core. To swell the gourd and plumb the hazel shells with a sweet kernel; the softer, usually edible part contained in the shell of a nut or the stone of a fruit: the body of a seed within its husk or integuments: a whole seed grain, as of wheat or corn: the pit or seed of peach, cherry, plum, etc: the central or most important part of anything; essence; gist; core: to set budding more and still even more later flowers for the bees. Until the moment they think warm days will never end; for summer has over-brimmed; the softer, usually edible part contained in the shell of a nut or the stone of a fruit: the body of a s eed within its husk or integuments: a whole seed grain, as of wheat or corn: the pit or seed of a peach, cherry, plum, etc: the central or most important part of anything; essence; gist; core: their clammy cells; covered with a cold, sticky moisture; cold and damp: sickly; morbid. Who had not seen autumn at the peak of its own season? ; autumn is personified and represented as successively identifiable with women working at the granary fields or at a cider press; Sometimes whoever seeks autumn beyond the boundaries of time may find it sitting carelessly on a granary floor; a storehouse or repository for grain, esp. after it has been threshed or husked: a region that produces great quantities of grain; its hair lifted softly by the winnowing wind; to free (grain) from the lighter particles of chaff, dirt, etc. , esp. y throwing it into the air and allowing the wind or a forced current of air to blow away impurities: to drive or blow (chaff, dirt, etc. ) away by fanning: to blow upon; fan: to subject to some process of separating or distinguishing; analyze critically; sift: to separate or distinguish (valuable from worthless parts) (sometimes fol. by out ): to pursue (a course) with flapping wings in flying: to fan or stir (the air) as with the wings in flying: to free grain from chaff by wind or driven air: to fly with flapping wings; flutter; or sound asleep in a half reaped furrow. Drowsed with the fumes of poppies, while its hook spares the next swath and all its twined flowers. Sometimes like a gleaner; to gather slowly and laboriously, bit by bit: to gather (grain or the like) after the reapers or regular gatherers: to learn, discover, or find out, usually little by little or slowly: it does keep steady its laden head across a brook or with a patient look it watches a cyder press the last oozing for the next few hours. The Composition of To Autumn Keats wrote To Autumn after enjoying a lovely autumn day; he described his experience in a letter to his friend Reynolds: How beautiful the season is nowHow fine the air. A temperate sharpness about it. Really, without joking, chaste weatherDian skiesI never likd stubble fields so much as nowAye better than the chilly green of the spring. Somehow a stubble plain looks warmin the same way that some pictures look warmthis struck me so much in my Sundays walk that I composed upon it. General Comments This ode is a fa vorite with critics and poetry lovers alike. Harold Bloom calls it one of the subtlest and most beautiful of all Keatss odes, and as close to perfect as any shorter poem in the English Language. Allen Tate agrees that it is a very nearly perfect piece of style; however, he goes on to comment, it has little to say. This ode deals with the some of the concerns presented in his other odes, but there are also significant differences. (1) There is no visionary dreamer or attempted flight from reality in this poem; in fact, there is no narrative voice or persona at all. The poem is grounded in the real world; the vivid, concrete imagery immerses the reader in the sights, feel, and sounds of autumn and its progression. 2) With its depiction of the progression of autumn, the poem is an unqualified celebration of process. (I am using the words process, flux, and change interchangeably in my discussion of Keatss poems. ) Keats totally accepts the natural world, with its mixture of ripening, fulfillment, dying, and death. Each stanza integrates suggestions of its opposite or its predecessors, for they are inherent in autumn also. Because this ode describes the process of fruition and decay in autumn, keep in mind the passage of time as you read it. Analysis Stanza I: Keats describes autumn with a series of specific, concrete, vivid visual images. The stanza begins with autumn at the peak of fulfillment and continues the ripening to an almost unbearable intensity. Initially autumn and the sun load and bless by ripening the fruit. But the apples become so numerous that their weight bends the trees; the gourds swell, and the hazel nuts plump. The danger of being overwhelmed by fertility that has no end is suggested in the flower and bee images in the last four lines of the stanza. Keats refers to more later flowers budding (the -ing form of the word suggests activity that is ongoing or continuing; the potentially overwhelming number of flowers is suggested by the repetition And still more flowers. The bees cannot handle this abundance, for their cells are oer-brimmd. In other words, their cells are not just full, but are over-full or brimming over with honey. Process or change is also suggested by the reference to Summer in line 11; the bees have been gathering and storing honey since summer. Clammy describes moisture; its unpleasant connotations are accepted as natural, without judgment. Certain sounds recur in the beginning liness, m, l. Find the words that contain these letters; read them aloud and listen. What is the effect of these soundsharsh, explosive, or soft? How do they contribute to the effect of the stanza, if they do? The final point I wish to make about this stanza is slight and sophisticated and will probably interest you only if you like grammar and enjoy studying English: The first stanza is punctuated as one sentence, and clearly it is one unit. It is not, however, a complete sentence; it has no verb. By omitting the verb, Keats focuses on the details of ripening. In the first two and a half lines, the sun and autumn conspire (suggesting a close working relationship and intention). From lines 3 to 9, Keats constructs the details using parallelism; the details take the infinitive form (to plus a verb): to load and bless, To bend and fill, To swell and plump, and to set. In the last two lines, he uses a subordinate clause, also called a dependent clause (note the subordinating conjunction until); the subordinate or dependent clause is appropriate because the oversupply of honey is the result ofor dependent uponthe seemingly unending supply of flowers. Stanza II The ongoing ripening of stanza I, which if continued would become unbearable, has neared completion; this stanza slows down and contains almost no movement. Autumn, personified as a reaper or a harvester, crosses a brook and watches a cider press. Otherwise Autumn is listless and even falls asleep. Some work remains; the furrow is half-reapd, the winnowed hair refers to ripe grain still standing, and apple cider is still being pressed. However, the end of the cycle is near. The press is squeezing out the last oozings. Find other words that indicate slowing down. Notice that Keats describes a reaper who is not harvesting and who is not turning the press. Is the personification successful, that is, does nature become a person with a personality, or does nature remain an abstraction? Is there a sense of depletion, of things coming to an end? Does the slowing down of the process suggest a stopping, a dying or death? Does the personification of autumn as a reaper with a scythe suggest another kind of reaperthe Grim Reaper? Speak the last line of this stanza aloud, and listen to the pace (how quickly or slowly you say the words). Is Keats using the sound of words to reinforce and/or to parallel the meaning of the line? Stanza III Spring in line 1 has the same function as Summer in stanza I; they represent process, the flux of time. In addition, spring is a time of a rebirth of life, an association which contrasts with the explicitly dying autumn of this stanza. Furthermore, autumn spells death for the now full-grown lambs which were born in spring; they are slaughtered in autumn. And the answer to the question of line 1, where are Springs songs, is that they are past or dead. The auditory details that follow are autumns songs.
Posted by Micah Conklin at 11:58 PM